By Li-Ciao Hong (auth.)
This ebook bargains a brand new viewpoint on these El Niños that develop to impressive magnitudes, asserting the declare that those “super El Niños” may be grouped into an remoted cluster. All identified large El Niños convey mentioned beneficial properties which are seldom noticeable in common El Niños. large El Niño occasions, that are marked by way of a hugely deterministic existence cycle, will dominate the Earth’s weather for a number of years. This learn identifies the pre-conditions and a booster mechanism that bring about the runaway progress of great El Niños, that's featured via the serious interplay among the anomalous move in middle/high latitudes and the ENSO resource zone. The learn not just sheds new gentle at the basic mechanism of the ENSO but in addition contributes to bettering its prolonged predictability.
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Additional info for Super El Niño
The evolution of the Hawaii low resembles a galaxy “sprawling” and stretching its “leg,” southwesterly winds, toward the central equatorial Paciﬁc. Consequently, the sprawling of the Hawaii low is a crucial step for this external forcing from subtropics to directly influence the equatorial Paciﬁc (ENSO source region) and trigger El Niño. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Fig. 4 a–b Schematic diagram illustrating that Hawaii low sprawls and its structure tilts in NE– SW axis via the mutual enhancement of the Sverdrup balance and the WES feedback on vertical motion.
22, 2992-3005. , P. Chang, and L. Ji, 2009: Linking the Paciﬁc Meridional Mode to ENSO: Coupled Model Analysis. J. , 22, 3488-3505. Chapter 5 Southern Hemisphere Booster The main ﬁnding in Hong et al. (2014) is that the extraordinary magnitude of super El Niño is facilitated by a Southern Hemisphere transverse cell, which acts as a booster to further accelerate the low-level westerly winds in the tropical western Paciﬁc, thus resulting in a super El Niño. In this chapter, this boosting mechanism is presented.
First, the associated anomalous westerly winds of the enhanced convection over this region can trigger the Bjerknes feedback, the primary growing process of ENSO. Second, the induced local Hadley cell is the “embryo” of the SHB that will serve as a booster to accelerate El Niño’s growth in the following season, leading to a super El Niño. Therefore, the box is a key region for super El Niño. The formation of the local Hadley cell may be related to the seasonal transition of the climatological local Hadley cell.
Super El Niño by Li-Ciao Hong (auth.)