By Mark Elbroch, Eleanor Marks, C. Diane Boretos
PDF with OCR; unique DJVU on hand upon request.
• Songbirds, waterfowl, owls, shorebirds, warblers, woodpeckers, nightjars, birds of prey • Dozens of feather teams photographed in colour
A sighting within the box is only one approach birders can establish chicken species. Observant nature-lovers can observe what birds are the place by means of studying tracks, trails, and quite a few chicken signal: discarded feathers, feeding leftovers and caches, pellets, nests, droppings, and skulls and bones. This totally illustrated guide--the first of its type for North American birds--presents thorough and easy guideline for making a choice on chicken households or person species through cautious exam of the original signal they go away at the back of. It additionally bargains keys to the birds' habit within the wild.
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Additional info for Bird Tracks & Sign : A Guide to North American Species
Classic Bird Tracks Barn swallow tracks on a riverbank. (WY) Barn Swal low (Hirundo rustica) Track: 1 1/1 6-1 in. 7-2 . 5 em) L x 1/4-711 6 in. 6-1 . 1 em) W Classic bird track. Very sma l l . Anisodactyl. Metatarsal weakly registers or is absent altogether. Notes: Common only in m uddy areas during the nest-building season; otherwise, rarely encountered. ) Track: 7/a-1 in. 5 em) L x 5/1 6-3/a in. 8-1 em) W Classic bird track. Very smal l . Anisodactyl. Metatarsal weakly registers or is absent altogether.
5:. ' it il / Snow Bunting (Piectrophenax nivalis) Track: 1 3/s-1 5/s in. 5-4. 3/4 i n . 9 e m ) W Classic bird track. Sma l l . Anisodactyl. Metatarsal weakly registers or is absent altogether. Similar species: Longspurs have sim i lar tracks and gaits. Horned larks, which often share the same coastal habitat in winter months, run rather than skip. TW P/s-2 1/4 in. (3. 7 em) Trail: Skip , '\ \V } Strides 4-1 0 in. ( 1 0. 4 em) Hop slanted Strides 2-5 in. (5. 7 em) Notes: Often found in flocks and will readily mix with other species, such as horned larks and longspurs.
Metatarsal weakly registers or is absent altogether. S i m i lar species: Sparrow tracks are the same size, but have a different foot morphology. Trai l : Hop TW 1 7/s-21/4 i n . 4 em) Strides 3112-1 2 in. f -,�. fit, �· I \_ ... }:of f. \�f! "f � Cardinal tracks. (MA) Northern cardinal trail: hopping in mud. Tracks and Trails American pipit tracks (L); trail: walking in mud (R). American Pipit (Anthus rubescens) Track: P/s-1 1h in. (3 . 8 em) L x 5/s-7/s in. 6-2 . 2 em) W Classic bird track. Small .
Bird Tracks & Sign : A Guide to North American Species by Mark Elbroch, Eleanor Marks, C. Diane Boretos