By OECD, OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Joint Research Centre- European Commission
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Additional resources for Assessing the effects of ICT in education: indicators, criteria and benchmarks for international comparisons
Evaluation and reflection Once the indicator statistics are available, the interpretation of the outcomes can start. g. ‘we expect that at least 90 % of students are using ICT daily in school’), which for obvious reasons is hardly ever the case. Hence, this is usually a very tedious process, in which many different groups of stakeholders have their say. It is not uncommon to observe that national researchers present wellqualified interpretations covering both strengths and weaknesses, while after the publication of the international reports, the media and certain groups of stakeholders interpret the outcomes like Olympic league tables, whereby a place lower than the top three is qualified as bad and reason for serious policy concern and action.
London: Cassell. G. (1993). Change forces: probing the depths of educational reform. London: Falmer Press. Goodlad, J. I. and Anderson, R. H. (1984). A place called school. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill. , Farell, S. and Jesson, D. (1999). Improving schools: performance and potential. Buckingham: Open University Press. , Paavola, S. and Lehtinen, E. (2004). Communities of networked expertise. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Kozma, R. B. ) (2003). Technology, innovation and educational change: a global perspective.
Collection, in order to determine which items constitute the best test. Psychometric analyses are conducted to check if the items fit in intended scales. • Translation verification. All items are originally in the English language. They are translated into national languages — which can be many, as in South Africa where in IEA-PIRLS (reading literacy) a translation into 12 languages is needed. It is crucially important that the translation matches the international version as well as possible. The quality of the translations is checked by involving professional translators.
Assessing the effects of ICT in education: indicators, criteria and benchmarks for international comparisons by OECD, OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Joint Research Centre- European Commission