By Alex M. Andrew
The relative failure of makes an attempt to investigate and version intelligence will be attributed partially to the normal assumption that the processing of constant variables and the manipulation of discrete suggestions may be handled individually. during this publication, the writer considers concept-based concept as having developed from processing of continuing variables. even if "fuzzy" concept recognizes the necessity to mix conceptual and non-stop processing, its assumption of the primacy of concept-based processing makes it evolutionarily implausible.
The textual content starts off by way of reviewing the origins and goals of cybernetics with specific connection with Warren McCulloch’s declared lifetime quest of "understanding man’s understanding". it's proven that non-stop structures can suffer advanced self-organization, yet a necessity for category of events turns into obvious and will be noticeable because the evolutionary starting of concept-based processing. probabilities for advanced self-organization are emphasised by way of dialogue of a normal precept that has been termed value suggestions, of which backpropagation of blunders in neural nets is a different case.
It can be famous that non-stop measures grow to be linked to processing that's basically concept-based, as stated in Marvin Minsky’s connection with heuristic connection among difficulties, and the linked uncomplicated studying heuristic of Minsky and Selfridge. This reappearance of continuity, in addition to observations at the multi-layer constitution of clever platforms, helps a in all probability helpful view of intelligence as having a fractal nature. this can be such that buildings at a posh point, interpreted when it comes to those emergent measures, replicate others at an easier point. Implications for neuroscience and synthetic Intelligence also are examined.
The publication provides unconventional and hard viewpoints that may be of curiosity to researchers in AI, psychology, cybernetics and platforms technological know-how, and will aid advertise additional research.
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Additional info for A Missing Link in Cybernetics: Logic and Continuity
More will be said about this in the next chapter. Classification versus Tuning The schemes that have been discussed under the headings of process control and learning filters all refer to learning devices dedicated to one particular task. On the other hand, a person or animal faces different tasks and environments at different times, and something that looks like a single task from one point of view may drastically alter in character. An example of the latter is the task of walking upright, which has one character when the feet make nonslipping contact with the ground, but another when slithering on black ice, and similar considerations apply to driving a vehicle.
Formal logic, like mathematics, is often preferred to natural language because of its apparent precision, but this is illusory if it depends on distorting the representation of a problem or situation to make it fit the formalism. The preference is reminiscent of certain advice given to young men in Victorian times, where they were urged to remember that white is white and not “a kind of light colour”. Unfortunately for such a rule, colours described loosely as “white” vary considerably among themselves, as becomes clear when buying paint to match some existing decoration, and the less precise “kind of light colour” may be a more accurate description.
The making of a move by one player in chess typically requires a choice from about 30 legal possibilities. The number of possible courses the game might take in only a few moves is enormous, as each of the 30 moves could be met by any of about 30 responses from the opponent, and so on. A skilled chess player can look at the configuration of pieces on the board and can say something about the relative strengths of the two players’ positions. There is therefore interest in forming a “static evaluation function”, sometimes called the “scoring polynomial”, to indicate the relative strength of a player’s position.
A Missing Link in Cybernetics: Logic and Continuity by Alex M. Andrew